Overview of the power and the effect size of the test and why low p-value is not always enough to make a decision.
Introduction to the inference for a population proportion using binomial test and $\chi^2$ test for independence.
Basic concept of the NHST and the idea of p-value. Overview of the inference for a population mean using one/two-sample $t$-tests and ANOVA.
Learn how you can update your prior beliefs using Bayes rule with the disease testing as an example.